"In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark; They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort. And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the LORD shut him in. And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days." Genesis 7:11-24
Do you remember when you were in grade school reading about dinosaurs in your science text books? I do. I remember reading about how scientists believed that a giant asteroid crashed into the Earth and caused a great extinction of all the dinosaurs. I remember reading in my science book about how the death of these dinosaurs led them to be buried, and through their decay, causing mass oil fields to be created. In an interview with LiveScience.com in 2005, William Thomas, a Geologist at the University of Kentucky, referring to the creation of mass oil fields, is quoted as saying, “Even some of the dinosaurs may have gotten involved in some of this”. I remember being amazed at the fact that my parents were pumping old, dead dinosaurs into their vehicles to drive me around! While I am not here to debate whether an asteroid was the cause of all dinosaur extinction, I would, however, like to discuss the idea that the sudden, mass extinction of carbon-based life forms can and did create the mass oil fields we have available to us today.
In science class, we should have all learned that all living things are carbon based organisms[i]. It is essentially the building block of all life here on Earth. We should have also learned that oil and other petroleum products are carbon-based products as well[ii]. This makes sense because oil is made from decayed plant and animal matter. Science has proven that the carbon-based oil is a by-product of decaying matter. Now we must decide what caused this mass extinction of so much carbon-based life that it created giant oil fields all over the world.
In order for decaying matter to be transformed into oil, it would require four things:
1) A global catastrophe, able to account for a mass decay of life organisms.
2) An environment that is depleted in oxygen.
3) Pressure above 735psi.[iii]
In regards to an oxygen depleted atmosphere, Roger Patterson, in his article “Chapter 7: The Fossil Record” states it like this:
“The formation of fossils demands that the organisms be buried quickly in an environment free of oxygen where nothing will disturb them. We find few places like this on earth today. Flood conditions are ideal for forming fossils, and the global Flood described in Genesis provides a starting point to examine the fossil record.” (Robert Patterson, “Chapter 7: The Fossil Record”)
One would almost think it counter-intuitive that a flood which is comprised of water, made of one third oxygen atoms would be oxygen deprived, yet science has proven that the deeper one goes into water, the more oxygen depleted water becomes[v]. It is not simply due to pressure that many species of fish cannot survive at such great depths; it is due to oxygen deprivation. The water closest to the surface has no problems being replenished with oxygen from the atmosphere, however, without a great churning force, this oxygen rarely makes it to the lowest portions of bodies of water. This is most evident in lakes during winter.
With the consideration of pressure in mind, I would like you to consider the necessity of the depths of the flood in order to cover the world’s highest mountain peaks. Mount Everest is the world’s highest mountain at 29,028 feet or approximately 5.5 miles above sea level. Lake Erie is by far not the deepest lake in the United States, yet it is documented to suffer from hypoxia, or the absence of oxygen in it’s lower levels[vi]. Keeping in mind that if Lake Erie has a difficult time replenishing the oxygen level at its lake bed, how impossible do you suppose it to be for a depth 29,028 feet?
It is also worth noting that a gallon of water (without saline) weighs approximately 8.34 pounds. The flood provided pressure up to 12,930 psi on the surface of the Earth, and over 30,000 psi at the deepest depths of the ocean floor[vii]. This provides more than enough pressure for oil formation.
Second, we must answer for the heat necessary. This is easily done by taking into account that throughout the entire world, there are more than 1500 volcanoes, with some scientists estimating there are over 10,000 others held within the oceans![viii] When you look at a map that details their locations, you will see that they provide adequate coverage throughout the world. The collaborative eruption of these volcanoes would be able to heat the surrounding waters to a level able to provide for the necessity of heat. We know this because the lava that flows from volcanoes is thousands of degrees Fahrenheit at the time of eruption. This takes into account a slight cooling affect the water would have. We must also take into account the thousands of hydro-thermal vents that reach temperatures well over 500 degrees Celsius.[ix]
Therefore, we have more than adequately answered the need for heat.
Last, we must account for perhaps the most important aspect of the entire equation, which is time. In a lot in Philadelphia sits a company by the name of Changing World Technologies, which has developed a system that can turn 200 tons of animal by-products into 600 barrels of light oil every day (DISCOVER Vol. 24 No. 5). The company uses a machine that uses the same process the Earth uses, only it is able to stabilize and speed up the process. In 2003, it was estimated that by using 600 million tons of turkey guts, 4 billion barrels of oil could be produced. This is significant in the sense that in 2001, the United States imported 4.2 billion barrels to meet our energy needs. This means that man is now able to produce oil on a large scale, not in millions of years as science once suggested, but rather in a matter of days.
We do not need an old Earth to account for the production of oil. The Great Flood is a perfectly acceptable answer as to why we have large oil field deposits throughout the Earth. There was a massive extinction of life on Earth providing the biomass for decay. The flood waters provided ample pressure necessary to meet the requirements of oil production in an oxygen-deprived atmosphere, and heat was readily available through volcanoes and hydrothermal vents. Last, we know that by copying the process of which the Earth creates oil, man can make billions of barrels a year. This disproves the requirement of millions or billions of years necessary for oil production, and thereby takes another link out of the argument for an old Earth. Instead, we have more proof of a young Earth that provides the Bible even more geological accuracy.
[i] Internet Encyclopedia of Science http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/C/carbon-based_life.html
[ii] Math and Science Activity Center http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/c_fuels.htm
[iii] How Oil and Gas Were Formed
[v] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/glindicators/water/oxygenb.html
[vi] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/glindicators/water/oxygenb.html
[vii] Noah’s Flood http://www.yecheadquarters.org/noah_flood.html
[viii] General Facts About Volcanoes http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4886
[ix]Hydro-Thermal Vents in the Ocean http://www.divediscover.whoi.edu/vents/vent-infomod.html#